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Anti-inflammatory activity of MCP-1 / CCL2 derived peptide

sequence comparison ccl-2, mcp-1
Malignant gliomas are most common and fatal primary brain tumors. In addition to neoplastic cells, the tumor tissue contains microglial cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. It is an established fact that monocyte recruiting promotes the tumor growth and dissemination. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is the major attractant for monocytes. We have previously synthesized an MCP-1 antagonist ingramon, a synthetic peptide fragment (65-76) of this chemokine. In the present study, we demonstrated that glioma-conditioned medium contains MCP-1 and stimulates migration of blood monocytes. Ingramon inhibited the effect of glioma-conditioned medium on monocyte migration.

Krasnikova TL, Arefieva TI, Pylaeva EA, Sidorova MV, Bull Exp Biol Med. 2016 Feb 23. [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The peptide from C-terminal domain of MCP-1 (Ingramon) has been shown to inhibit monocyte migration and possess anti-inflammatory activity in animal models of inflammation and post-angioplasty restenosis. Here, we investigate the effect of Ingramon treatment on blood levels of acute-phase reactants and chemokines in patients after coronary stenting and the mechanisms of Ingramon anti-inflammatory activity.
SUBJECTS: Eighty-seven patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) who faced the necessity of coronary angiography (CA) were enrolled. In 67 patients, one-stage coronary stenting was performed; 33 of them were treated with Ingramon in addition to standard therapy. Twenty patients underwent CA only.
METHODS: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibrinogen blood levels were detected routinely. The chemokine concentration in plasma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or cytometric bead array-based immunoassay. Intracellular Ca(2+) levels and cell surface integrin exposure were assayed by flow cytometry. MCP-1 dimerization was studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). MCP-1-heparin binding was assessed with a biosensor and ELISA.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Ingramon treatment was accompanied by less pronounced elevation of hsCRP and fibrinogen levels and decreased MCP-1 concentration in plasma in patients after coronary stenting. Ingramon had no effect on MCP-1 interaction with cell receptors or MCP-1 dimerization, but inhibited MCP-1 binding to heparin. The anti-inflammatory activity of the peptide may be mediated by an impaired chemokine interaction with glycosaminoglycans.

Arefieva TI, Krasnikova TL, Potekhina AV, et al., Inflamm Res. 2011 Oct;60(10):955-64. doi: 10.1007/s00011-011-0356-z. Epub 2011 Jul 10.

Inflammation plays an important role in vessel wall remodeling that occurs in atherosclerosis and postangioplasty restenosis. Monocytic chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is one of the main attractors of monocytes and some lymphocyte subsets to the damaged vessel. The aims of the study were to confirm MCP-1 participation in the development of acute coronary syndromes, to produce the potential MCP-1 peptide antagonist, and to investigate its effects in vitro and in vivo in different animal models of inflammation. MCP-1 plasma concentration was measured by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Chemokine receptor expression by cells isolated from human atherosclerotic lesions was assessed by direct immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. MCP-1 sequence was analyzed with Peptide Companion software and peptides were synthesized using Fmoc strategy. The peptide resistance to degradation was checked by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The peptide effect on MCP-1-stimulated cell migration was studied in Boyden chamber and in mouse air pouch model, and its influence on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cell recruitment was investigated in models of subcutaneous inflammation in rats and nonhuman primates. We revealed nearly a 2-fold increase of MCP-1 plasma level in patients with unstable angina in comparison with patients with stable angina. The atherosclerotic plaque specimens obtained from patients with unstable angina contained a significant amount of chemokine receptor-expressing leukocytes. Peptide from MCP-1C-terminal 65-76 sequence (peptide X) inhibited MCP-1-stimulated monocytic cell migration in vitro and in vivo. Peptide X labeled with 99mTc accumulated specifically at sites of inflammation in rats. Peptide X administrated i.m and i.v. suppressed monocyte and granulocyte recruitment induced by subcutaneous injection of LPS in the back of rats and non-human primates. Our data demonstrate that MCP-1-mediated chemotaxis could be responsible for atherosclerotic plaque "destabilization". Peptide X may represent a new class of anti-inflammatory drugs to be used in cardiology.

Chazov EI, Bespalova JD, Arefieva TI et al., Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Mar-Apr;85(3-4):332-40.

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