Anti-inflammatory activity of MCP-1 / CCL2 derived peptide
Malignant gliomas are most common and fatal primary brain tumors. In addition to neoplastic cells, the tumor tissue contains microglial cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. It is an established fact that monocyte recruiting promotes the tumor growth and dissemination. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is the major attractant for monocytes. We have previously synthesized an MCP-1 antagonist ingramon, a synthetic peptide fragment (65-76) of this chemokine. In the present study, we demonstrated that glioma-conditioned medium contains MCP-1 and stimulates migration of blood monocytes. Ingramon inhibited the effect of glioma-conditioned medium on monocyte migration.
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The peptide from C-terminal domain of MCP-1 (Ingramon) has been shown to inhibit monocyte migration and possess anti-inflammatory activity in animal models of inflammation and post-angioplasty restenosis. Here, we investigate the effect of Ingramon treatment on blood levels of acute-phase reactants and chemokines in patients after coronary stenting and the mechanisms of Ingramon anti-inflammatory activity.
SUBJECTS: Eighty-seven patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) who faced the necessity of coronary angiography (CA) were enrolled. In 67 patients, one-stage coronary stenting was performed; 33 of them were treated with Ingramon in addition to standard therapy. Twenty patients underwent CA only.
METHODS: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibrinogen blood levels were detected routinely. The chemokine concentration in plasma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or cytometric bead array-based immunoassay. Intracellular Ca(2+) levels and cell surface integrin exposure were assayed by flow cytometry. MCP-1 dimerization was studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). MCP-1-heparin binding was assessed with a biosensor and ELISA.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Ingramon treatment was accompanied by less pronounced elevation of hsCRP and fibrinogen levels and decreased MCP-1 concentration in plasma in patients after coronary stenting. Ingramon had no effect on MCP-1 interaction with cell receptors or MCP-1 dimerization, but inhibited MCP-1 binding to heparin. The anti-inflammatory activity of the peptide may be mediated by an impaired chemokine interaction with glycosaminoglycans.
Inflammation plays an important role in vessel wall remodeling that occurs in atherosclerosis and postangioplasty restenosis. Monocytic chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is one of the main attractors of monocytes and some lymphocyte subsets to the damaged vessel. The aims of the study were to confirm MCP-1 participation in the development of acute coronary syndromes, to produce the potential MCP-1 peptide antagonist, and to investigate its effects in vitro and in vivo in different animal models of inflammation. MCP-1 plasma concentration was measured by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Chemokine receptor expression by cells isolated from human atherosclerotic lesions was assessed by direct immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. MCP-1 sequence was analyzed with Peptide Companion software and peptides were synthesized using Fmoc strategy. The peptide resistance to degradation was checked by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The peptide effect on MCP-1-stimulated cell migration was studied in Boyden chamber and in mouse air pouch model, and its influence on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cell recruitment was investigated in models of subcutaneous inflammation in rats and nonhuman primates. We revealed nearly a 2-fold increase of MCP-1 plasma level in patients with unstable angina in comparison with patients with stable angina. The atherosclerotic plaque specimens obtained from patients with unstable angina contained a significant amount of chemokine receptor-expressing leukocytes. Peptide from MCP-1C-terminal 65-76 sequence (peptide X) inhibited MCP-1-stimulated monocytic cell migration in vitro and in vivo. Peptide X labeled with 99mTc accumulated specifically at sites of inflammation in rats. Peptide X administrated i.m and i.v. suppressed monocyte and granulocyte recruitment induced by subcutaneous injection of LPS in the back of rats and non-human primates. Our data demonstrate that MCP-1-mediated chemotaxis could be responsible for atherosclerotic plaque "destabilization". Peptide X may represent a new class of anti-inflammatory drugs to be used in cardiology.