Proliferation and spatial development of colonic epithelial cells are highly regulated along the crypt vertical axis, which, when perturbed, can result in aberrant growth and carcinogenesis. In this study, two key factors were identified that have important and counterbalancing roles regulating these processes: pericrypt myofibroblast-derived Wnt-5a and the microbial metabolite butyrate. Cultured YAMC cell proliferation and heat shock protein induction were analzyed after butryate, conditioned medium with Wnt5a activity, and FrzB containing conditioned medium. In vivo studies to modulate Hsp25 employed intra-colonic wall Hsp25 encoding lentivirus. To silence Wnt-5a in vivo,intra-colonic wall Wnt-5a silencing RNA was used. Wnt-5a, secreted by stromal myofibroblasts of the lower crypt, promotes proliferation through canonical ?-catenin activation. Essential to this are two key requirements: (1) proteolytic conversion of the highly insoluble ~40 kD Wnt-5a protein to a soluble 36 mer amino acid peptide that activates epithelial ?-catenin and cellular proliferation, and (2) the simultaneous inhibition of butyrate-induced Hsp25 by Wnt-5a which is necessary to arrest the proliferative process in the upper colonic crypt. The interplay and spatial gradients of these factors insures that crypt epithelial cell proliferation and development proceed in an orderly fashion, but with sufficient plasticity to adapt to physiological perturbations including inflammation.
Loss of Wnt-5a protein expression is associated with shorter recurrence-free survival in breast carcinoma patients and increased motility in mammary cell lines. Based on sequence analysis of Wnt-5a, we identified 14 peptide fragments and investigated their ability to mimic the effects of Wnt-5a on mammary cell adhesion and migration. Two of these peptides significantly increased adhesion and impaired migration in the non-tumorigenic HB2 breast epithelial cell line and in the MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell line, both of which show little endogenous expression of theWnt-5a protein. We removed two amino acids at a time from the N terminus of the shorter of these two peptides to identify the shortest peptide that still inhibited migration. The influence on tumor cell adhesion was gradually lost and was no longer detectable when only six amino acids remained. However, formylation of the N-terminal methionine of this hexapeptide restored its effect on adhesion and reduced tumor cell motility via a Frizzled-5 receptor-dependent mechanism, even at a low pH such as encountered in breast tumor tissue. This formylated hexapeptide ligand induced a rapid cytosolic calcium signal, whereas it did not affect the cellular levels of unphosphorylated beta-catenin or active JNK. The novel formyl-Met-Asp-Gly-Cys-Glu-Leu peptide ligand is not only a valuable experimental tool but has also a potential role in antimetastatic treatment of the 50% of human breast cancer patients that have reduced endogenous Wnt-5a protein expression.
|080-01A||WNT-3a, recombinant (Human)||5 µg||$259|
|080-02A||WNT-3a, recombinant (Mouse)||5 µg||$206|
|080-03A||WNT-5a, recombinant (Human)||5 µg||$364|
|036-67||Wnt-5a (238-277) (Human, Rat, Mouse)||100 µg||$362|
|036-63||Wnt-5a (242-272) (Human, Rat, Mouse)||100 µg||$227|
|036-64||Wnt-5a (242-272) with disulfide bridge (Human, Rat, Mouse)||100 µg||$259|
|036-65||Wnt-5a (242-277) (Human, Rat, Mouse)||100 µg||$259|
|036-66||Wnt-5a (242-277) with disulfide bridge (Human, Rat, Mouse)||100 µg||$290|