Enterostatin: A Obesity Related Peptide
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The increasing prevalence of obesity in the Western world has stimulated an intense search for mechanisms regulating food intake and energy balance. A number of appetite-regulating peptides have been identified, their receptors cloned and the intracellular events characterized. One possible energy-dissipating mechanism is the mitochondrial uncoupling of ATP-synthesis from respiratory chain oxidation through uncoupling proteins, whereby energy derived from food could be dissipated as heat, instead of stored as ATP. The exact role of the uncoupling proteins in energy balance is, however, uncertain. We show here that mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase itself is a target protein for an anorectic peptide, enterostatin, demonstrated both after affinity purification of rat brain membranes and through a direct physical interaction between enterostatin and purified F1-ATP synthase. In insulinoma cells (INS-1) enterostatin was found to target F1F0-ATP synthase, causing an inhibition of ATP production, an increased thermogenesis and increased oxygen consumption. The experiments suggest a role of mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase in the suppressed insulin secretion induced by enterostatin. It could be speculated that this targeting mechanism is involved in the decreased energy efficiency following enterostatin treatment in rat.
Nonshivering thermogenesis induced in brown adipose tissue (BAT) during high-fat feeding is mediated through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP2 is a recently identified homologue found in many tissues. To determine the role of UCP1 and UCP2 in thermoregulation and energy balance, we investigated the long-term effect of high-fat feeding on mRNA levels in mice at two different ambient temperatures. We also treated mice with the anorectic peptide enterostatin and compared mRNA levels in BAT, white adipose tissue (WAT), stomach, and duodenum. Here, we report that high-fat feeding at 23 degrees C increased UCP1 and UCP2 levels in BAT four- and threefold, respectively, and increased UCP2 levels fourfold in WAT. However, at 29 degrees C, UCP1 decreased, whereas UCP2 remained unchanged in BAT and increased twofold in WAT. Enterostatin increased UCP1 and decreased UCP2 mRNA in BAT. In stomach and duodenum, high-fat feeding decreased UCP2 mRNA, whereas enterostatin increased it. Our results suggest that the regulation of uncoupling protein mRNA levels by high-fat feeding is dependent on ambient temperature and that enterostatin is able to modulate it.
Enterostatin (Ent) selectively suppresses the intake of dietary fat after peripheral and central administration. To further investigate the site of action of Ent, we compared the feeding responses to Ent injected intra-arterially near the celiac artery, into the carotid artery, or intravenously in rats adapted to a high-fat diet. After near-celiac arterial injection there was an immediate dose-dependent (0.05-13.5 nmol) inhibition of food intake occurring within 5 min in overnight-fasted rats that lasted up to 20 min. Carotid arterial Ent had a similar, immediate dose-related response, and the inhibitory effect was long lasting. The response to intravenous Ent was only evident at the highest dose (13.5 nmol) and was delayed for at least 120 min. Pretreatment with capsaicin, which causes degeneration of vagal sensory neurons, abolished the inhibitory responses to near-celiac Ent but not to intravenous or intracarotid Ent. These results provide further evidence for both a gastrointestinal site of action for peripheral Ent and a central site of action for intracarotid Ent and suggest that the delayed response to intravenous Ent may reflect either binding or slow uptake of this peptide into the central nervous system.
Enterostatins [Val-Pro-Asp-Pro-Arg (VPDPR), Val-Pro-Gly-Pro-Arg (VPGPR), and Ala-Pro-Gly-Pro-Arg (APGPR)] are pentapeptides derived from the NH2-terminus of procolipase after tryptic cleavage and belong to the family of gut-brain peptides. Although enterostatin-like immunoreactivities exist in blood, brain, and gut, and exogenous enterostatins decrease fat appetite and insulin secretion in rats, the roles of these peptides in human obesity remain to be examined. To determine whether VPDPR and APGPR secretion is altered in obesity, serum VPDPR and APGPR levels were measured in 38 overnight-fasted subjects (body mass index, 17.9-54.7 kg/m2) before and after a meal. The mean fasting VPDPR in the serum of lean subjects was significantly lower than that in obese subjects [lean = 603 +/- 86 nmol/L (n = 17); obese, 1516 +/- 227 nmol/L (n = 21); P = 0.0023]. In addition, the rise in serum APGPR after a meal (postmeal/fasting ratio) was significantly higher in lean than in obese subjects [lean, 1.71 +/- 0.24 (n = 17); obese, 1.05 +/- 0.14 (n = 21); P = 0.0332]. The results of these studies show hyperenterostatinemia in obesity and a diminution in enterostatin secretion after satiety.
Enterostatins, pentapeptides represented at the amino-terminus of the procolipase molecule, are derived following tryptic cleavage of the procolipase molecule in the lumen of the gut. Val-Pro-Asp-Pro-Arg or VPDPR is one such enterostatin. Despite pharmacologic studies suggesting a role for VPDPR in appetite regulation and insulin secretion, the function of this endogenous peptide has been impossible to discern due to the lack of a suitable assay. Using polyclonal antibodies raised against VPDPR and different chromatographic methods, we examined the nature and distribution of enterostatin-like immunoreactivity in rat plasma. The results reported here show for the first time the presence of VPDPR-like immunoreactivity in rat plasma. Further characterization of the plasma VPDPR-like immunoreactivity revealed that a) it is not due to APGPR, VPGPR, or VPDPR but to another peptide similar to VPDPR, and b) plasma VPDPR-like immunoreactivity may circulate bound to large carrier proteins.
Enterostatins belong to a family of peptides (e.g., Val-Pro-Asp-Pro-Arg, VPDPR; Ala-Pro-Gly-Pro-Arg, APGPR; and Val-Pro-Gly-Pro-Arg, VPGPR) derived from the tryptic cleavage of amino-terminal pentapeptide from procolipase. Pharmacologic studies have suggested a role for these peptides in appetite regulation and insulin secretion. Studies into the distribution of enterostatins or the role of endogenous peptides have not been possible until now due to the lack of a suitable method for assay. Using two polyclonal antibodies raised against VPDPR and APGPR and different chromatographic methods, we have examined the nature and distribution of enterostatin-like immunoreactivity in human cerebrospinal fluid. The results reported here show for the first time the presence of enterostatin-like immunoreactivity in the human cerebrospinal fluid. Further characterization of cerebrospinal fluid enterostatin-like immunoreactivity revealed that it is not due to APGPR, VPGPR, or VPDPR but to another peptide similar to VPDPR.