Proline-rich peptide 1 produced by neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus

vasopressin neurophysin2 alignment

INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly that slowly destroys memory and cognitive functions. The disease has no cure and leads to significant structural and functional brain abnormalities. To facilitate the treatment of this disease, we aimed to investigate proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) action of hypothalamus on hippocampal (HP) neurons and dynamics of their recovery, after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of amyloid-β (Aβ).
METHODS:Experiments were carried out on 24 adult, male Albino rats (average weight: 230±30 g). The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups (control, Aβ, and Aβ plus PRP-1). Electrophysiological patterns of hippocampal neurons in response to stimulation of entorhinal cortex (EC) with high frequency stimulation (50 Hz) were studied.
RESULTS: It was found that Aβ (25-35) suppresses the electrical activity of hippocampal neurons. The PRP-1 would return this activity to normal levels.
CONCLUSION: In general, PRP-1 has protective effect against AD-related alterations induced by amyloid peptides. This protective effect is probably due to stimulation of the immune and glia system.

Khalaji N, Sarkissian J, Chavushyan V, Sarkisian V. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2017;8(1):5-12.

This study aimed to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of antiproliferative action of proline rich polypeptide 1 (PRP-1) cytokine, produced by neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus to be considered as alternative adjuvant therapy for metastatic chondrosarcoma, which does not respond to chemotherapy or radiation and currently without any effective treatment. Rapid cell proliferation assay of human primary cultures from high grade chondrosarcoma patients biopsies and human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cell line indicated 50 and 80% inhibition in PRP-1 treated samples correspondingly. Videomicroscopy detected that despite the treatment there are still dividing cells, meaning that cells are not in the state of dormancy, rather PRP-1 repressed the cell cycle progression, exhibited cytostatic effect. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an intracellular serine/threonine protein kinase that has a crucial role in a nutrient sensitive signaling pathway that regulates cell growth. Experiments with mTOR pathway after PRP-1 (10 ?g/ml) treatment indicated statistically significant 30% inhibition of mTOR activity and its 56% inhibition in immunoprecipitates with PRP-1 concentrations effective for cell proliferation inhibition. Treatment with PRP- caused inhibition of mTOR and downstream target cMyc oncogenic transcription factor sufficient to trigger the cytostatic effect in high grade, but not in low grade chondrosarcomas. The fact that lower concentrations than 10 ?g/ml peptide with cytostatic effect did not inhibit mTOR, but inhibited cMyc prompted us to assume that PRP-1 binds to two different receptors facilitating the antiproliferative effect.

Galoian K, Temple TH, Galoyan A. Neurochem Res. 2011;36(5):812-8.

The objective of this immunohistochemical research was to reveal the distribution of a proline-rich peptide-1 (PRP-1) in various brain structures of intact and trauma-injured rats and to identify the mechanisms of promotion of neuronal recovery processes following PRP-1 treatment. PRP-1, produced by bovine hypothalamic magnocellular cells and consisting of 15 amino acid residues, is a fragment of neurophysin vasopressin associated glycoprotein isolated from bovine neurohypophysis neurosecretory granules. PRP-1-immunoreactivity (PRP-1-IR) was detected in the brain of intact rats in the neurons of paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei in the hypothalamus, in almost all cell groups in the medulla oblongata, in Purkinje and some cerebellar nuclei cells, and in nerve fibers. At 3 weeks after hemisection of the spinal cord (SC) an asymmetry of PRP-1 localization in the PVN and SON was observed: no PRP-1-IR was exhibited at the affected sides of both nuclei. Daily intramuscular administration of PRP-1 for 3 weeks significantly increased the number of PRP-1-immunoreactive (PRP-1-Ir) varicose nerve fibers, and cells in PVN and SON and in cell groups of the limbic system and brain stem. Tanycytes in the median eminence and covering ependyma also demonstrated strong PRP-1-IR. PRP-1 treatment also activated neuropeptide Y-IR (NPY-IR) in nerve fibers and immunophilin fragment-IR (IphF-IR) in lymphocytes and nerve cells. A strong increase of PRP-1-IR was observed in the PVN and SON of SC-injured rats following the treatment with another PRP (PRP-3). Preliminary physiological data demonstrate that PRP-3 is more "aggressive" in the recovery processes than PRP-1. Based on the findings regarding PRP action on neurons survival, axons regeneration, and the number of IphF-Ir lymphocytes and NPY-Ir nerve fibers, PRP is suggested to act as a neuroprotector, functioning as a putative neurotransmitter and immunomodulator.

Abrahamyan SS, Sarkissian JS, Meliksetyan IB, Galoyan AA. Neurochem Res. 2004;29(4):695-708.

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