Proteogenomics and ribosome profiling concurrently show that genes may code for both a large and one or more small proteins translated from annotated coding sequences (CDSs) and unannotated alternative open reading frames (named alternative ORFs or altORFs), respectively, but the stoichiometry between large and small proteins translated from a same gene is unknown. MIEF1, a gene recently identified as a dual-coding gene, harbors a CDS and a newly annotated and actively translated altORF located in the 5'UTR. Here, we use absolute quantification with stable isotope-labeled peptides and parallel reaction monitoring to determine levels of both proteins in two human cells lines and in human colon. We report that the main MIEF1 translational product is not the canonical 463 amino acid MiD51 protein but the small 70 amino acid alternative MiD51 protein (altMiD51). These results demonstrate the inadequacy of the single CDS concept and provide a strong argument for incorporating altORFs and small proteins in functional annotations.
Recent technological advances led to the discovery of hundreds to thousands of peptides and small proteins (microproteins) encoded by small open reading frames (smORFs). Characterization of new microproteins demonstrates their role in fundamental biological processes and highlights the value in discovering and characterizing more microproteins. The elucidation of microprotein-protein interactions (MPIs) is useful for determining the biochemical and cellular roles of microproteins. In this study, we characterize the protein interaction partners of mitochondrial elongation factor 1 microprotein (MIEF1-MP) using a proximity labeling strategy that relies on APEX2. MIEF1-MP localizes to the mitochondrial matrix where it interacts with the mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome). Functional studies demonstrate that MIEF1-MP regulates mitochondrial translation via its binding to the mitoribosome. Loss of MIEF1-MP decreases the mitochondrial translation rate, while an elevated level of MIEF1-MP increases the translation rate. The identification of MIEF1-MP reveals a new gene involved in this process.
The human mitochondrial translation apparatus, which synthesizes the core subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system, is of central interest as mutations in several genes encoding for mitoribosomal proteins or translation factors cause severe human diseases. Little is known, how this complex machinery assembles from nuclear-encoded protein components and mitochondrial-encoded RNAs, and which ancillary factors are required to form a functional mitoribosome. We have characterized the human Obg protein GTPBP10, which associates specifically with the mitoribosomal large subunit at a late maturation state. Defining its interactome, we have shown that GTPBP10 is in a complex with other mtLSU biogenesis factors including mitochondrial RNA granule components, the 16S rRNA module and late mtLSU assembly factors such as MALSU1, SMCR7L, MTERF4 and NSUN4. GTPBP10 deficiency leads to a drastic reduction in 55S monosome formation resulting in defective mtDNA-expression and in a decrease in cell growth. Our results suggest that GTPBP10 is a ribosome biogenesis factor of the mtLSU required for late stages of maturation.
Recent functional, proteomic and ribosome profiling studies in eukaryotes have concurrently demonstrated the translation of alternative open-reading frames (altORFs) in addition to annotated protein coding sequences (CDSs). We show that a large number of small proteins could in fact be coded by these altORFs. The putative alternative proteins translated from altORFs have orthologs in many species and contain functional domains. Evolutionary analyses indicate that altORFs often show more extreme conservation patterns than their CDSs. Thousands of alternative proteins are detected in proteomic datasets by reanalysis using a database containing predicted alternative proteins. This is illustrated with specific examples, including altMiD51, a 70 amino acid mitochondrial fission-promoting protein encoded in MiD51/Mief1/SMCR7L, a gene encoding an annotated protein promoting mitochondrial fission. Our results suggest that many genes are multicoding genes and code for a large protein and one or several small proteins.
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which more than 20 genetic loci have been implicated to date. However, studies demonstrate not all genetic factors have been identified. Therefore, in this study we seek to identify additional rare variants and novel genes potentially contributing to AD.METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed on 23 multi-generational families with an average of eight affected subjects. Exome sequencing was filtered for rare, nonsynonymous and loss-of-function variants. Alterations predicted to have a functional consequence and located within either a previously reported AD gene, a linkage peak (LOD>2), or clustering in the same gene across multiple families, were prioritized.RESULTS: Rare variants were found in known AD risk genes including AKAP9, CD33, CR1, EPHA1, INPP5D, NME8, PSEN1, SORL1, TREM2 and UNC5C. Three families had five variants of interest in linkage regions with LOD>2. Genes with segregating alterations in these peaks include CD163L1 and CLECL1, two genes that have both been implicated in immunity, CTNNA1, which encodes a catenin in the cerebral cortex and MIEF1, a gene that may induce mitochondrial dysfunction and has the potential to damage neurons. Four genes were identified with alterations in more than one family include PLEKHG5, a gene that causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and THBS2, which promotes synaptogenesis.CONCLUSION: Utilizing large families with a heavy burden of disease allowed for the identification of rare variants co-segregating with disease. Variants were identified in both known AD risk genes and in novel genes.
|037-72||MIEF-1 microprotein / altMiD51 / SMCR7L (Human)||100 µg||$371|
|037-74||MIEF-1 microprotein / altMiD51 / SMCR7L (42-70) (Human)||100 µg||$265|